Demand-pull and technology-push: What drives the direction of technological change? An empirical network-based approach

19 April 2021

Kerstin Hötte
View Journal Article / Working Paper

Demand-pull and technology-push are linked to an empirical two-layer network-based on coupled cross-industrial input-output (IO) and patent citation links among 155 4-digit (NAICS) US-industries in 1976-2006 to study the evolution of industry hierarchies and link formation. Both layers co-evolve, but differently: The patent network became denser and increasingly skewed, while market hierarchies are balanced and sluggish in change. Industries became more similar by patent citations, but less by IO linkages. Having similar R&D capabilities as other big industries is positively related to innovation and growth, but relying on the same market inputs is unfavorable but may incite industries to explore other technological pathways. A tentative interpretation is the non-rivalry of intangible knowledge. This may strengthen existing R&D trajectories. Growth in the market is constrained by competition and market pressure may trigger a re-direction in both layers. This work is limited by its reliance on endogenously evolving classifications.