DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2012.10.002View Journal Article / Working Paper
Acoustic signals mediate mate choice, resource defense, and species recognition in a broad range of taxa. It has been proposed, therefore, that divergence in acoustic signals plays a key role in speciation. Nonetheless, the processes driving divergence of acoustic traits and their consequences in terms of speciation are poorly understood. A review of empirical and comparative studies reveals strong support for a role of sexual selection in acoustic divergence, but the possible concomitant influences of ecological context are rarely examined. We summarize a conceptual framework for testing the relative significance of both adaptive and neutral mechanisms leading to acoustic divergence, predictions for cases where these processes lead to speciation, and how their relative importance plays out over evolutionary time.