Association for Computing Machinery
Ge Wang, Jun Zhao, Max Van Kleek, and Nigel Shadbolt. 2022. Informing Age-Appropriate AI: Examining Principles and Practices of AI for Children. In Proceedings of the 2022 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '22). Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, Article 536, 1–29. https://doi.org/10.1145/3491102.3502057View Journal Article / Working Paper
AI systems are becoming increasingly pervasive within children’s devices, apps, and services. However, it is not yet well-understood how risks and ethical considerations of AI relate to children. This paper makes three contributions to this area: first, it identifies ten areas of alignment between general AI frameworks and codes for age-appropriate design for children. Then, to understand how such principles relate to real application contexts, we conducted a landscape analysis of children’s AI systems, via a systematic literature review including 188 papers. This analysis revealed a wide assortment of applications, and that most systems’ designs addressed only a small subset of principles among those we identified. Finally, we synthesised our findings in a framework to inform a new “Code for Age-Appropriate AI”, which aims to provide timely input to emerging policies and standards, and inspire increased interactions between the AI and child-computer interaction communities.