Making Sense of Making Meat: Key Moments in the First 20 Years of Tissue Engineering Muscle to Make Food

10 July 2019

Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems

Neil Stephens, Alexandra E. Sexton,3 and Clemens Driessen

View Journal Article / Working Paper

Cultured/clean/cell-based meat (CM) now has a near two decade history of laboratory research, commencing with the early NASA-funded work at Touro College and the bioarts practice of the Tissue Culture and Art project. Across this period the field, or as it is now more commonly termed, the “space,” has developed significantly while promoting different visions for what CM is and can do, and the best mechanisms for delivery. Here we both analyse and critically engage with this near-twenty year period as a productive provocation to those engaged with CM, or considering becoming so. This paper is not a history of the field, and does not offer a comprehensive timeline. Instead it identifies significant activities, transitions, and moments in which key meanings and practices have taken form or exerted influence.