Skip to main content

Publications Sep 2016

News Thumbnail

The future of employment: How susceptible are jobs to computerisation?


In this paper, the authors examine how susceptible jobs are to computerisation. To assess this, they begin by implementing a novel methodology to estimate the probability of computerisation for 702 detailed occupations, using a Gaussian process classifier. Based on these estimates, they examine expected impacts of future computerisation on US labour market outcomes, with the primary objective of analysing the number of jobs at risk and the relationship between an occupations probability of computerisation, wages and educational attainment.


Carl Benedikt Frey, Michael A. Osborne, Oxford Martin School, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 1PT, United Kingdom Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PJ, United Kingdom Received 24 September 2015, Accepted 19 August 2016, Available online 29 September 2016


More information


Carl Benedikt Frey
Michael Osborne

Type: Journal Articles & Working Papers